This area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 miles (1,000 km) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico; the Red River; the Ouachita River and its branches; and other minor streams (some of which are called bayous).The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles (15 to 100 km), and along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles (15 km) across.There are several hundred salt domes in the state; one of the most familiar is Avery Island.
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As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened.
Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south.
Louisiana's capital is Baton Rouge and its largest city is New Orleans. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, and the largest by total area is Plaquemines.
Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south.
Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period, a Spanish one.