In short, surveying helps to establish the best areas to begin excavation.
Rather than just going into a site rather willy-nilly, surveying sort of predetermines where things like structures, and dense areas of artifacts, objects made by humans that hold historical interest, may be found.
Because one of archaeology's main goals is to disturb as little of the natural environment as possible, surveying is an extremely important step in the archaeological process before any excavation begins. As the main tool of archaeology, excavation is the scientific retrieval of material remains, digging, or recovery work that is systematically controlled to harvest the maximum amount of data about a past people group.
With this term being familiar to most of us, we'll look into two of the main types of excavation.
Reconnaissance is defined as a wide array of techniques used to locate archaeological sites.