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Mc Nulty; Ordinarily, the conduct of an attorney is imputed to his client, since allowing a party to evade the consequences of the acts or omissions of his freely selected agent would be inconsistent with system of representative litigation. Mitsubishi Motors Corp; When a lawyer inadvertently receives materials that obviously appear to be subject to attorney-client privilege or otherwise confidential and privileged, the lawyer must immediately notify the sender. CITGO Petroleum Corp; Non-refundable retainer fees and other non-refundable provisions in attorney fee agreements will be upheld if reasonable; sophisticated client; contract is in writing; incurred expenses. UBS Warburg LLC; Once a party reasonably anticipates litigation, it must suspend its routine document retention/destruction policy and put in place a litigation hold to ensure the preservation of relevant documents; spoliation. City of New York; To prevail on a claim for denial of a fair trial due to prejudicial publicity, the plaintiff must establish (1) improper leaks; (2) in fact denied a fair trial; and (3) other remedies were not available or used to no avail. Environmental Assessment; when an agency has no ability to prevent a certain effect, the agency cannot be considered a legally relevant cause of such effect; so under NEPA, the agency need not consider these effects in its EA. United States; Mere knowledge that spills and leaks occur after the sale of a chemical product is insufficient for concluding the seller "arranged for" disposal of hazardous chemical for CERCLA liability. Preventative detention of criminal defendant does not violate substantive due process under fifth amendment nor constitute excessive bail under eighth amendment if clear and convincing evidence defendant presents threat to safety of community. S.; if a party repudiates a contract, the other party is entitled to restitution for any benefit he has conferred on the repudiating party by way of part performance or reliance. Jackson; The Federal Arbitration Act puts arbitration agreements on equal footing with other contracts, and requires courts to enforce them according to their terms; unconscionability challenges. Cendant Mobility Services Corp.; a promise that the promisor should reasonably expect to induce action or forbearance and does is binding if injustice can be avoided only by enforcement of the promise. Morell; even when there is no fraud, there may be mutual mistake; where both parties share a common false assumption about a vital fact upon which their bargain is based, the transaction may be avoided.

A plaintiff seeking to challenge a government regulation as an uncompensated taking of private property may proceed only by alleging a physical taking, a total regulatory taking, a Penn Central taking, or a land-use exaction. United States; CERCLA does not mandate joint and several liability; scope of liability must be determined from traditional and evolving principles of common law. Atlantic Research Corp; CERCLA ยง 107(a)(4)(B) provides Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) with a cause of action to recover, from other PRPs, costs voluntarily incurred in cleaning up a contaminated site; contribution. Movants, protective order, federal rule of civil procedure 30(b)(2), record a deposition by nonstenographic means and is given the choice of the method of recording, absent annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, and undue burden or expense. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co.; exercise general jursidiction gives court authority to hear all claims at place of defendant's domicile or place of service, without showing connection between specific claims and forum state. Independent counsel; subpoena duces tecum; ad testificandum. RAM Holdings, Inc.; When the examination of extrinsic evidence does not lead to an obvious, objectively reasonable conclusion, the court may apply the forthright negotiator principle. Donovan; A contract is not enforceable if an essential term is indefinite or a promise to perform is illusory, but may enforce if extrinsic evidence makes more definite and the promise to perform less illusory.

Administrative Prodecure Act National Park Hospitality Ass'n v. Ahmanson & Co.; Majority shareholders have a fiduciary responsibility to the minority and to the corporation to control the corporation in a fair, just, and equitable manner. Under the safe-harbor provision of 27A of the Securities and Exchange Act, forward-looking statements must be accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements that adequately identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ. SEC; The Securities and Exchange Commission must consider efficiency, competition, and capital formation, and failure makes promulgation of the proposed rule arbitrary and capricious. accused who expresses a desire to deal only through counsel does not waive that right merely by responding to further police-initiated questioning unless accused initiates further communication. A security interest may attach if the debtor has rights in the collateral, but there is no requirement that the debtor own the collateral.

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Federal Impact Aid Program; financial assistance to local school districts; prohibits offsetting federal aid by reducing state aid to a local district; unreasonably interfering with a state program that seeks to equalize per-pupil expenditures. Secretary of Labor; An agency's practice of advising affected entities that a regulation does not apply to them establishes an authoritative departmental interpretation that may not be changed without prior notice and comment. EPA; If Congress grants a procedural right to protect concrete interests,like right to challenge agency action unlawfully withheld, litigant can assert without meeting ordinary standards for redressability and immediacy; standing. Earth Island Institute; doctrine of standing requires federal courts to satisfy plaintiff alleged such personal stake in outcome of controversy to warrant plaintiff's invocation of federal court jurisdiction; case or controversy requirement. City of New York; Use of Line Item Veto Act to cancel spending for a budget item violates the Constitution by permitting the virtual amendment of Congressional acts by the President.; delegation doctrine. Redding; school search permissible in scope when measures adopted reasonably related to objectives of search, not excessively intrusive in light of age and sex of student and nature infraction; qualified immunity. EPA; Because greenhouse gases fit squarely within the Clean Air Act's definition of air pollutant, the EPA has the authority to regulate the emission of such gases from new motor vehicles. Leemon Family LLC; parties to an LLC have substantial authority to shape their own affairs, and any conflicts between the LLC Act and their agreement will be resolved in favor of the agreement. Jaffari; a limited liability company (LLC) is bound by the operating agreement signed by some members and that defines the LLC's governance and operation, even if the LLC itself did not sign. Boland Trane Associates, Inc.; Although an SLC's substantive decisions are presumed reasonable, there is no presumption that the SLC was independent, acted in good faith, or followed reasonable procedures. Cellular Information Systems, Inc.; corporate fiduciary generally must place the corporation's interests before his own, but here no valid expectancy interest and did not usurp any corporate opportunity. Gugliuzzi; the knowledge of an agent acting within the scope of his or her authority is chargeable to the principal, regardless of whether that knowledge is actually communicated. When a non-testifying codefendant confession incriminating defendant is not directly admissible against defendant, the confrontation clause bars its admission at their joint trial, even if the jury is instructed not to consider it against the defendant. A statute is void for vagueness if it fails to specify the conduct punishable thereunder such that the defendant lacks fair warning that his conduct violates the statute. When there is doubt as to whether an instrument has been forged or merely altered, the court will assume that the instrument was altered.

Under Communications Act of 1934, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates interstate telephone communications using a traditional regulatory system similar to what other commissions regulating other common carriers. Mukasey; An immigration judge's credibility determination must be based on specific, cogent reasons that bear a legitimate nexus to the findings; asylum and protection; Convention Against Torture; Board of Immigration Appeals . Sale of securities falls under 10(b) of the Securites and Exchange Act of 1934; section 10(b) forbids the use of any manipulative or deceptive device or contrivance relating to the sale of a security that is misleading or operates as a fraud or deceit. The Chase Manhattan Bank; Boilerplate successor obligor clauses do not permit assignment of the public debt to another party in the course of a liquidation unless to a single purchaser. RJR Nabisco, Inc.; When there is no express covenant restricting the incurring of new debt, and no perceived direction to that end from the express covenants, the court will not imply a covenant. Bolger; A derivative action that alleges only a breach of the duty of care, and not a breach of the duty of loyalty, does not require separate legal representation of the corporate plaintiff and the management defendants. RCO AG Credit, Inc.; When the court requires a plaintiff in a derivative action to post a bond for the defendant's anticipated attorney's fees and costs, the defendant may not recover costs or fees greater than that bond. Oak Industries, Inc.; The relationship between a corporation and its bondholders is contractual in nature, and the rights and obligations of the parties will be spelled out in the documentation of that relationship. Allied Artists Picture Corporation; When and in what amounts dividends will be declared rests in the honest discretion of the directors, assuming the absence of fraud or a gross abuse of discretion. Delaware corporate law authorizes the indemnification of an officer's legal expenses when the officer has been successful in the underlying proceeding, as well as the advancement of expenses in pending proceedings. Goodyear; a shareholder derivative action must state with particularity any effort made by the plaintiff to obtain the desired action from the directors and the reasons for not obtaining the action or making the effort. Shareholder Litigation; to obtain a preliminary injunction, must demonstrate (1) a reasonable probability of success on the merits, (2) will suffer irreparable harm, and (3) the balance of the equities Nixon v. China Media Express Holdings, Inc.; shareholder may inspect the books and records of a corporation to investigate fraud and mismanagement, and the ability of the board to act independently and in good faith. In re MFW Shareholders Litigation; business judgment rule standard of review applies to controlling stockholder merger if procedural safeguards followed; majority of the minority stockholder approval. Imposition of death sentence for murder in the first degree is not void under due process clause solely because trial court considered additional information from probation department and other sources. Right to a jury trial is not violated by pennsylvania mandatory minimum sentencing act. Moore; The Sixth Amendment requires reasonable competence in representing the accused, but substantial deference must be afforded to counsel's judgment. Habeas corpus; per curiam; opinion; vagueness doctrine; void for vagueness. Court broad construction of a state criminal statute provides fair notice that statutory language will encompass conduct related to that forbidden by the statute.

Traditional Baking, Inc.; clients are the principals, the attorney is an agent; under law of agency, principal is bound by agent's deeds, except attorney misconduct outside the scope of employment. 8(a)(2) short and plain statement of the claim showing that pleader is entitled to relief, give the defendant fair notice of claim and grounds upon which it rests. General Motors Corp.; sanctionable spoliation is destruction or material alteration of evidence or failure to preserve property for another's use as evidence in pending or reasonably foreseeable litigation; manufacturer opportunity to inspect Harnden v. Darue Engineering & Manufacturing; federal forum for federal tax litigation sufficiently substantial for exercise of federal question jurisdiction; federal title law; division of labor between state and federal courts United Oil Co. Parts Associates, Inc.; may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, relevant to claim or defense; other lawsuits regarding similar products relevant to a defendant's failure to warn; indemnify; indemnity agreement. UBS Warburg LLC; corporate counsel has duty to communicate discovery obligations so all relevant information is discovered, retained, and produced; once duty to preserve attaches, identify all sources of discoverable information. Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact. Federal cigarette advertising regulations preempt conflicting state regulations, congress expressly preempts state or local action, conflicting state regulation must yield to federal law, supremacy clause. Seelig, Inc., Barriers to commercial traffic between states, direct or indirect, violate the Commerce Clause when purpose and effect of such barriers is to suppress or mitigate the consequences of competition between states. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority; Laws that favor government operations, but that treat all private businesses equally, do not violate the Commerce Clause; dormant commerce clause. Police dog; drug dog sniff luggage; K-9 dog; investigative detention; when officer's observations lead him reasonably to believe that luggage contains narcotics, officer may detain luggage briefly to investigate circumstances that aroused his suspicion. when police investigation is no longer general inquiry into unsolved crime but focuses on particular suspect in police custody, must allow opportunity to consult with lawyer or warn of absolute constitutional right to remain silent. These grounds are extreme such ascorruption, fraud, partiality, misconduct, etc. William and Martha Messerly; as-is clause may defeat grant of rescission for mutual mistake relating to a basic assumption that materially affects the parties' agreed performance.

Allapattah Services; class action, if named plaintiff meets requirement, supplemental jurisdiction over claims in same case or controversy even if claims for less than jurisdictional amount for diversity jurisdiction; Article III. Three branches of government; grant of executive authority cannot be overridden by a congressional veto, once congress has acted to vest authority in an administrative agency, it cannot act to overturn the action of that agency in the absence of further l Sequestration, budget appropriations cannot be delegated to a legislator the delegation of executive functions to a legislative administrator violates the constitutionally imposed doctrine of separation of powers. When officers have reasonable suspicion that person has committed crime or is about to commit crime, they may temporarily detain individual for questioning no longer than necessary to serve purposes of stop. Mattel, Inc.; The FAA provides the exclusive grounds for expedited vacatur and modification of arbitration awards. American Ash Recycling Corp.; The bargain theory of consideration does not actually require that the parties bargain over the terms of the agreement; rather, a promise and a reciprocal conventional inducement.

The Reform Act provides a three-part process for identifying the lead plaintiff in a class action lawsuit: notice; greatest financial stake in the outcome of the controversy; Rule 23 requirements of typicality and adequacy. The substantive fairness of a class action settlement and attorney's fees depends on: (1) the complexity, expense, and duration of the litigation; (2) the reaction of the class to the settlement; (3) the stage of the proceedings and the extent of discover If a board is pursuing a merger for strategic reasons, it may decline to entertain a competing bid that may yield a higher short-term gain for its shareholders in favor of a merger that ensures greater long-range gains. Delaware General Corporation Law 144 provides a safe harbor for interested transactions if the material facts as to the director\'s relationship or interests as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known and majority of disinterested direct Abry Partners V, L. One who inflicts an injury upon another that results in death cannot avoid liability because the victim could have taken better care of himself or herself.